distage Staged Dependency Injection

distage is a pragmatic module system for Scala that combines safety and reliability of pure FP with late binding and flexibility of runtime dependency injection frameworks such as Guice.

Hello World

Let’s start with a simple Hello app:

import distage._

class Hello {
  def hello(name: String) = println(s"Hello $name!")

object HelloModule extends ModuleDef {

object Main extends App {
  val injector: Injector = Injector()
  val plan: OrderedPlan  = injector.plan(HelloModule)
  val classes: Locator   = injector.produce(plan)

  println("What's your name?")
  val name = readLine()

We’ll break it down line-by-line:

object HelloModule extends ModuleDef {

Here we define a Module for our application. A module specifies what classes to instantiate and how to instantiate them.

By default, distage will just call the constructor.

If a class’s constructor requires arguments, distage will first instantiate the arguments, then call the constructor with its dependencies fulfilled. All classes in distage are instantiated exactly once, even if multiple different classes depend on them, i.e. they’re Singletons.

A module can be combined with another to produce a larger module via ++ and overridenBy operators. We can create a ByeModule and join it with our HelloModule:

object ByeModule extends ModuleDef {

class Bye {
  def bye(name: String) = println(s"Bye $name!")

val helloBye: Module = HelloModule ++ ByeModule

We can override the implementation of Hello class by overriding our HelloModule with an alternative implementation:

val uppercaseHello: Hello = 
  new Hello { 
    def hello(name: String) = s"HELLO ${name.toUpperCase}"

object UppercaseHelloModule extends ModuleDef {

val uppercaseHelloBye: Module = helloBye overridenBy uppercaseHello 

Combining modules with ++ is the main way to assemble your app together. For scenarios requiring extreme late-binding across multiple modules, you can use the Plugins mechanism to automatically discover modules from the classpath.

distage can check at compile-time if your app is wired correctly, If the modules typecheck, the app is guaranteed to start. See Compile-Time Checks for more details.

Let’s go back to the code:

object Main extends App {
  val injector: Injector = Injector()
  val plan: OrderedPlan  = injector.plan(HelloModule)

Here we create an instantation plan from the module definition. distage is staged, so instead of instantiating our definitions right away, distage first builds a pure representation of all the operations it will do and returns it back to us.

This allows us to easily implement additional functionality on top of distage without modifying the library. Features such as Plugins and Configurations are separate libraries, built on transforming modules and plans

  val classes: Locator   = injector.produce(plan)

  println("What's your name?")
  val name = readLine()

Executing the plan yields us a Locator, that holds all the instantiated classes. This is where distage ends, and app’s main logic begins.

Given a Locator we can retrieve instances by type, call methods on them or summon them with a function:

import scala.util.Random

classes.run {
  (hello: Hello, bye: Bye) =>
    val names = Array("Snow", "Marisa", "Shelby")
    val rnd = Random.nextInt(3)
classes.runOption {
  i: Int => i + 10
}.fold(println("I thought I had Int!"))(println(_))

Provider Bindings

To bind a function instead of constructor use .from method in ModuleDef DSL:

case class HostPort(host: String, port: Int)

class HttpServer(hostPort: HostPort)

trait HttpServerModule extends ModuleDef {
  make[HttpServer].from {
    hostPort: HostPort =>
      val modifiedPort = hostPort.port + 1000
      new HttpServer(hostPort.host, modifiedPort)

To inject named instances or config values, add annotations to lambda arguments’ types:

trait HostPortModule extends ModuleDef {
  make[HostPort].from {
    (configHost: String @ConfPath("http.host"), configPort: Int @ConfPath("http.port")) =>
      HostPort(configHost, configPort)

For further details, see scaladoc for ProviderMagnet

Multibindings / Set Bindings

Multibindings are useful for implementing event listeners, plugins, hooks, http routes, etc.

To define a multibinding use .many and .add methods in ModuleDef DSL:

import cats.effect._, org.http4s._, org.http4s.dsl.io._
import scala.concurrent.ExecutionContext.Implicits.global
import distage._

object HomeRouteModule extends ModuleDef {
  many[HttpRoutes[IO]].add {
    HttpRoutes.of[IO] { 
      case GET -> Root / "home" => Ok(s"Home page!") 

Multibindings defined in different modules will be merged together into a single Set. You can summon a multibinding by type Set[_]:

import cats.implicits._, import org.http4s.server.blaze._, import org.http4s.implicits._

object BlogRouteModule extends ModuleDef {
  many[HttpRoutes[IO]].add {
    HttpRoutes.of[IO] { 
      case GET -> Root / "blog" / post => Ok("Blog post ``$post''!") 

class HttpServer(routes: Set[HttpRoutes[IO]]) {
  val router = routes.foldK

  def serve = BlazeBuilder[IO]
    .bindHttp(8080, "localhost")
    .mountService(router, "/")

val context = Injector().produce(HomeRouteModule ++ BlogRouteModule)
val server = context.get[HttpServer]

val testRouter = server.router.orNotFound

testRouter.run(Request[IO](uri = uri("/home"))).flatMap(_.as[String]).unsafeRunSync
// Home page!

testRouter.run(Request[IO](uri = uri("/blog/1"))).flatMap(_.as[String]).unsafeRunSync
// Blog post ``1''!

For further detail see Guice wiki on Multibindings.

Tagless Final Style with distage

distage works well with tagless final style. As an example, let’s take freestyle’s tagless example and make it safer and more flexible by replacing fragile wiring import ._’s with explicit modules.

First, the program we want to write:

import cats._
import cats.implicits._
import cats.tagless._

import distage._

class Program[F[_]: TagK: Monad] extends ModuleDef {


trait Validation[F[_]] {
  def minSize(s: String, n: Int): F[Boolean]
  def hasNumber(s: String): F[Boolean]

trait Interaction[F[_]] {
  def tell(msg: String): F[Unit]
  def ask(prompt: String): F[String]

class TaglessProgram[F[_]: Monad: Validation: Interaction] {
  def program: F[Unit] = for {
    userInput <- Interaction[F].ask("Give me something with at least 3 chars and a number on it")
    valid     <- (Validation[F].minSize(userInput, 3), Validation[F].hasNumber(userInput)).mapN(_ && _)
    _         <- if (valid) 
                    Interaction[F].tell(s"$userInput is not valid")
  } yield ()

TagK is distage’s analogue of TypeTag for higher-kinded types such as F[_], it allows preserving type-information at runtime for types that aren’t yet known at definition. You’ll need to add a TagK context bound to create a module parameterized by an abstract F[_]. Use Tag to create modules parameterized by non-higher-kinded types.


import scala.util.Try

object TryInterpreters extends ModuleDef {
  def tryValidationHandler = new Validation.Handler[Try] {
    override def minSize(s: String, n: Int): Try[Boolean] = Try(s.size >= n)
    override def hasNumber(s: String): Try[Boolean] = Try(s.exists(c => "0123456789".contains(c)))
  def tryInteractionHandler = new Interaction.Handler[Try] {
    override def tell(s: String): Try[Unit] = Try(println(s))
    override def ask(s: String): Try[String] = Try("This could have been user input 1")

object App extends App {
  import cats.instances.try_._
  // Combine modules into a full program
  val TryProgram: Module = new Program[Try] ++ TryInterpreters
  // run

The program module is polymorphic and abstracted from its eventual monad, we can easily parameterize it with a different monad:

import cats.effect.IO

def IOInterpreters = ???
val IOProgram = new Program[IO] ++ IOInterpreters

We can leave it polymorphic as well:

import cats.effect.Sync

def SyncInterpreters[F[_]: Sync] = ???
def SyncProgram[F[_]: Sync] = new Program[F] ++ SyncInterpreters[F]

Or choose different interpreters at runtime:

def chooseInterpreters(default: Boolean) = new Program[Try] ++ (if (default) TryInterpreters else DifferentTryInterpreters)

Modules can abstract over arbitrary kinds - use TagKK to abstract over bifunctors:

class BIOModule[F[_, _]: TagKK] extends ModuleDef 

Use Tag.auto.T to abstract polymorphically over any kind:

class MonadTransModule[F[_[_], _]: Tag.auto.T] extends ModuleDef
class TrifunctorModule[F[_, _, _]: Tag.auto.T] extends ModuleDef
class EldritchModule[F[_, _[_, _], _[_[_, _], _], _, _[_[_[_]]]]: Tag.auto.T] extends ModuleDef

consult HKTag docs for more details


Plugins are a distage extension that allows you to automatically pick up all Plugin modules that are defined in specified package on the classpath.

Plugins are especially useful in scenarios with extreme late-binding, when the list of loaded application modules is not known ahead of time. Plugins are compatible with compile-time checks as long as they’re defined in a separate module.

To use plugins add distage-plugins library:

libraryDependencies += Izumi.R.distage_plugins


libraryDependencies += "com.github.pshirshov.izumi.r2" %% "distage-plugins" % "0.7.0-SNAPSHOT"

If you’re not using sbt-izumi-deps plugin.

Create a module extending the PluginDef trait instead of ModuleDef:

package com.example.petstore

import distage._
import distage.plugins._

trait PetStorePlugin extends PluginDef {

At your app entry point use a plugin loader to discover all PluginDefs:

val pluginLoader = new PluginLoaderDefaultImpl(
    debug = true
    , packagesEnabled = Seq("com.example.petstore") // packages to scan
    , packagesDisabled = Seq.empty         // packages to ignore

val appModules: Seq[PluginBase] = pluginLoader.load()
val app: ModuleBase = appModules.merge

Launch as normal with the loaded modules:


Plugins also allow a program to extend itself at runtime by adding new Plugin classes to the classpath via java -cp

Compile-Time Checks


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Relevant ticket: https://github.com/pshirshov/izumi-r2/issues/51

As of now, an experimental plugin-checking API is available in distage-app module.

To use it add distage-app library:

libraryDependencies += Izumi.R.distage_app


libraryDependencies += "com.github.pshirshov.izumi.r2" %% "distage-app" % "0.7.0-SNAPSHOT"

If you’re not using sbt-izumi-deps plugin.

Only plugins defined in a different module can be checked at compile-time, test scope counts as a different module.


In main scope:

// src/main/scala/com/example/AppPlugin.scala
package com.example
import distage._
import distage.plugins._
import distage.config._
import com.github.pshirshov.izumi.distage.app.ModuleRequirements

final case class HostPort(host: String, port: Int)

final case class Config(hostPort: HostPort)

final class Service(conf: Config @ConfPath("config"), otherService: OtherService)

// OtherService class is not defined here, even though Service depends on it
final class AppPlugin extends PluginDef {

// Declare OtherService as an external dependency
final class AppRequirements extends ModuleRequirements(
  // If we remove this line, compilation will rightfully break

In config:

// src/main/resources/application.conf
// We are going to check if our starting configuration is correct as well.
config {
  // If we remove these, the compilation will rightfully break, as the `HostPort` case class won't deserialize from the config
  host = localhost
  port = 8080

In test scope:

// src/test/scala/com/example/test/AppPluginTest.scala
package com.example.test

import com.example._
import org.scalatest.WordSpec
import com.github.pshirshov.izumi.distage.app.StaticPluginChecker

final class AppPluginTest extends WordSpec {
  "App plugin will work (if OtherService will be provided later)" in {
    StaticPluginChecker.checkWithConfig[AppPlugin, AppRequirements](disableTags = "", configFileRegex = "*.application.conf")   


checkWithConfig will run at compile-time, every time that AppPluginTest is recompiled.

You can participate in this ticket at https://github.com/pshirshov/izumi-r2/issues/51

Compile-Time Instantiation


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Config files

distage-config library parses typesafe-config into arbitrary case classes or sealed traits and makes them available for summoning as a class dependency.

To use it, add distage-config library:

libraryDependencies += Izumi.R.distage_config


libraryDependencies += "com.github.pshirshov.izumi.r2" %% "distage-config" % "0.7.0-SNAPSHOT"

If you’re not using sbt-izumi-deps plugin.

Write a config in HOCON format:

# resources/application.conf
program {
    config {
        different = true

Add ConfigModule into your injector:

import distage.config._
import com.typesafe.config.ConfigFactory

val config = ConfigFactory.load()

val injector = Injector(new ConfigModule(AppConfig(config)))

Now you can automatically parse config entries into case classes and can summon them from any class:

final case class Config(different: Boolean)

class ConfiguredTaglessProgram[F](
  @ConfPath("program.config") config: Config,
  @Id("primary") primaryProgram: TaglessProgram[F],
  @Id("different") differentProgram: TaglessProgram[F]) {

    val program = if (config.different) differentProgram else primaryProgram

class ConfiguredTryProgram[F[_]: TagK: Monad] extends ModuleDef {

Inner Classes and Path-Dependent Types

To instantiate path-dependent types via constructor, their prefix type has to be present in DI context:

trait Path { class A class B } val path = new Path {} val module = new ModuleDef { make[path.A] make[path.type].from(path.type: path.type) }

The same applies to type projections:

val module1 = new ModuleDef {
  make[Path].from(new Path {})

Provider and instance bindings and also compile-time mode in distage-static module do not require the singleton type prefix to be present in DI context:

val module2 = new ModuleDef {
  make[Path#B].from {
    val path = new Path {}
    new path.B

Implicits Injection


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Relevant ticket: https://github.com/pshirshov/izumi-r2/issues/230

Implicits are managed like any other class, to make them available for summoning, declare them inside a module:

import cats.Monad
import distage._
import scalaz.zio.IO
import scalaz.zio.interop.catz._

object IOMonad extends ModuleDef {
  addImplicit[Monad[IO[Throwable, ?]]]
  // same as make[Monad[IO[Throwable, ?]]].from(implicitly[Monad[IO[Throwable, ?]]])

Implicits for wired classes are injected from DI context, not from surrounding lexical scope. If they were captured from lexical scope when the module is defined, then any binding of a class that depends on an implicit, would have to import an implementation of that implicit. Depending on implementations is unmodular and directly contradicts the idea of using a dedicated module system in the first place:

import cats._
import distage._

class KVStore[F[_]: Monad, V] {
  def fetch(key: String): F[V]

val kvstoreModule = new ModuleDef {
  // We DON'T want this import to be necessary
  // import cats.instances.either._

  make[KVStore[Either[Error, ?]].from[KVStoreEitherImpl]

// Instead, specify implicits explicitly
val eitherMonadModule = new ModuleDef {
  // Ok to import here
  import cats.instances.either._
  addImplicit[Monad[Either[Error, ?]]]

val all = kvstoreMOdule ++ eitherMonadModule

Implicits obey the usual lexical scope outside of modules managed by distage.

You can participate in this ticket at https://github.com/pshirshov/izumi-r2/issues/230

Monadic effects instantiation


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Relevant ticket: https://github.com/pshirshov/izumi-r2/issues/331

Example of explicitly splitting effectful and pure instantiations:

import cats._
import cats.implicits._
import distage._
import distage.config._
import com.typesafe.config.ConfigFactory

import scala.concurrent.{Await, Future}
import scala.concurrent.duration.Duration
import scala.concurrent.ExecutionContext.global

case class DbConf()
case class MsgQueueConf()
case class RegistryConf()

class DBService[F[_]]
class MsgQueueService[F[_]]
class RegistryService[F[_]]

class DomainService[F[_]: Monad]
( dbService: DBService[F]
, msgQueueService: MsgQueueService[F]
, registryService: RegistryService[F]
) {
  def run: F[Unit] = Monad[F].unit

class ExternalInitializers[F[_]: TagK: Monad] extends ModuleDef {
  make[F[DBService[F]]].from { 
    dbConf: DbConf @ConfPath("network-service.db") => new DBService[F]().pure[F] 
  make[F[MsgQueueService[F]]].from { 
    msgQueueConf: MsgQueueConf @ConfPath("network-service.msg-queue") => new MsgQueueService[F]().pure[F] 
  make[F[RegistryService[F]]].from { 
    registryConf: RegistryConf @ConfPath("network-service.registry") => new RegistryService[F]().pure[F]

val injector = Injector(new ConfigModule(AppConfig(ConfigFactory.load())))
val monadicActionsLocator = injector.produce(new ExternalInitializers[Future])

val main: Future[Unit] = monadicActionsLocator.run {
  ( dbF: Future[DBService[Future]]
  , msgF: Future[MsgQueueService[Future]]
  , regF: Future[RegistryService[Future]]
  ) => for {
    db <- dbF
    msg <- msgF
    reg <- regF

    externalServicesModule = new ModuleDef {

    domainServiceModule = new ModuleDef {

    allServices = injector.produce(externalServicesModule ++ domainServiceModule)

    _ <- allServices.get[DomainService[Future]].run
  } yield ()

Await.result(main, Duration.Inf)

Side-effecting instantiation is not recommended in general ? ideally, resources and lifetimes should be managed outside of distage. A rule of thumb is: if a class and its dependencies are stateless, and can be replaced by a global object, it’s ok to inject them with distage. However, distage does provide helpers to help manage lifecycle, see: Auto-Sets, closing all AutoCloseables

You can participate in this ticket at https://github.com/pshirshov/izumi-r2/issues/331

Auto-Traits & Auto-Factories


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Import Materialization


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Depending on Locator

Classes can depend on the Locator:

import distage._

class A(all: LocatorRef) {
  def c = all.get.get[C]
class B
class C

val module = new ModuleDef {

val locator = Injector().produce(module)

assert(locator.get[A].c eq locator.get[C]) 

It’s recommended to avoid this if possible, doing so is often a sign of broken application design.

Ensuring service boundaries using API modules



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“Roles” are a pattern of multi-tenant applications, in which multiple separate microservices all reside within a single .jar. This strategy helps cut down development, maintenance and operations costs associated with maintaining fully separate code bases and binaries. The apps that should be launched are chosen by command-line parameters: ./launcher app1 app2 app3. When launching less apps than are available in the launcher - ./launcher app1, redundant components will be collected by the garbage collector and won’t be started.

Roles: a viable alternative to Microservices:


Test Kit

distage-testkit module provides integration with scalatest:

libraryDependencies += Izumi.R.distage_testkit


libraryDependencies += "com.github.pshirshov.izumi.r2" %% "distage-plugins" % "0.7.0-SNAPSHOT"

If you’re not using sbt-izumi-deps plugin.

Example usage:

import distage._
import com.github.pshirshov.izumi.distage.testkit.DistageSpec

class TestClass {
  def hello: String = "Hello World!"

class Test extends DistageSpec {
  override protected def makeBindings: ModuleBase = new ModuleDef {

  "TestClass" should {

    "Say hello" in di {
      testClass: TestClass =>
        assert(testClass.hello == "Hello World!")


Using Garbage Collector

A garbage collector is included in distage by default, to use it parameterize the injector with garbage collection roots:

import distage._

class Main

// Designate `Main` class as the garbage collection root
val roots = Seq(DIKey.get[Main])

// Enable GC
val injector = Injector(roots)

GC will remove all bindings that aren’t transitive dependencies of the chosen GC root keys from the plan - they will never be instantiated.

In the following example:

import distage._

case class A(b: B)
case class B()
case class C() {

val module = new ModuleDef {

val roots = Seq(DIKey.get[A])

val locator = Injector(roots).produce(module)

// res0: Option[A] = Some(A(B()))
// res1: Option[B] = Some(B())
// res2: Option[C] = None

Class C was removed because it neither B nor A depended on it. It’s not present in the Locator and the "C!" message was never printed. But, if class B were to depend on C as in case class B(c: C), it would’ve been retained, because A - the GC root, would depend on B which in turns depends on C.

GC serves two important purposes:

  • It enables faster tests by omitting unrequired instantiations and initialization of potentially heavy resources,
  • It enables multiple separate applications, aka “Roles” to be hosted within a single .jar.

Circular Dependencies support

distage automatically resolves circular dependencies, including self-reference:

import distage._

case class A(b: B)
case class B(a: A) 
case class C(c: C)

val locator = Injector().produce(new ModuleDef {

locator.get[A] eq locator.get[B].a
// res0: Boolean = true
locator.get[B] eq locator.get[A].b
// res1: Boolean = true
locator.get[C] eq locator.get[C].c
// res2: Boolean = true

Automatic Resolution with generated proxies

The above strategy depends on distage-proxy-cglib module which is brought in by default with distage-core.

It’s enabled by default. If you want to disable it, use noCogen bootstrap environment:

import com.github.pshirshov.izumi.distage.bootstrap.DefaultBootstrapContext
import distage._


Manual Resolution with by-name parameters

Most cycles can also be resolved manually when identified, using by-name parameters.

Circular dependencies in the following example are all resolved via Scala’s native by-name’s, without any proxy generation:

import com.github.pshirshov.izumi.distage.bootstrap.DefaultBootstrapContext.noCogen
import distage._

class A(b0: => B) {
  def b: B = b0

class B(a0: => A) {
  def a: A = a0

class C(self: => C) {
  def c: C = self

val module = new ModuleDef {

val locator = Injector(noCogen).produce(module)

assert(locator.get[A].b eq locator.get[B])
assert(locator.get[B].a eq locator.get[A])
assert(locator.get[C].c eq locator.get[C])

The proxy generation via cglib is still enabled by default, because in scenarios with extreme late-binding, cycles can emerge unexpectedly, outside of control of the origin module.

NB: Currently a limitation applies to by-names - ALL dependencies on a class engaged in a by-name circular dependency have to be by-name, otherwise distage will transparently revert to generating proxies.

Auto-Sets: Collecting Bindings By Predicate

AutoSet Planner Hooks traverse the class graph and collect all classes matching a predicate.

Using Auto-Sets, one can, for example, collect all AutoCloseable classes and .close() them after the application has finished work.

Note: it’s not generally recommended to construct stateful, effectful or resource-allocating classes with distage, a general rule of thumb is: if a class and its dependencies are stateless and can be replaced by a global object, it’s ok to inject them with distage. However, an example is given anyway, as a lot of real applications depend on global resources, such as JDBC connections, ExecutionContext thread pools, Akka Systems, etc. that should be closed properly at exit.

import java.util.concurrent.{ExecutorService, Executors}

import com.github.pshirshov.izumi.distage.model.planning.PlanningHook
import com.github.pshirshov.izumi.distage.planning.AssignableFromAutoSetHook
import distage._

val threadPoolModule = new ModuleDef {
  make[ExecutionContext].from {
    es: ExecutorService =>

// A hook that collects every instance of a subtype of a given type
val collectAllExecutorServicesHook = new AssignableFromAutoSetHook[ExecutorService]

val bootstrapModule = new BootstrapModuleDef {

val injector = Injector(bootstrapModule)

val locator = injector.produce(threadPoolModule)

try {
  // run the app
} finally {
  // when done, close thread pools
  val allExecutors = locator.get[Set[ExecutorService]]
  // Auto-set return ordered Set, in order of dependency
  // To start resources, execute actions in order
  // To close resources, execute actions in *reverse* order

Auto-Sets preserve ordering, they use ListSet under the hood, unlike user-defined Sets. Calling .foreach on an auto-set is safe; the actions will be executed in order of dependencies: i.e. if C depends on B depends on A, autoset order is: A, B, C, to start: A -> B -> C, to close: C -> B -> A When you use auto-sets for finalization, you must .reverse the autoset

trait PrintResource(name: String) {
  def start(): Unit = println(s"$name started")
  def stop(): Unit = println(s"$name stopped")
class A extends Resource("A")
class B(val a: A) extends Resource("B")
class C(val b: B) extends Resource("C")

val resources = Injector(new BootstraModuleDef {
    .add(new AssignableFromAutoSetHook[Resource])
}).produce(new ModuleDef {


// Will print:
// A started
// B started
// C started
// C stopped
// B stopped
// A stopped

NB: Auto-Sets are NOT subject to Garbage Collection, they are assembled after garbage collection is done, as such they can’t contain garbage by construction.

Weak Sets

Sets (aka Multibindings) can contain weak references. Elements designated as weak will not be retained by the Garbage Collector if they are not referenced outside of the set.


import distage._

sealed trait SetElem

final class Strong extends SetElem {
  println("Strong constructed")

final class Weak extends SetElem {
  println("Weak constructed")

val module = new ModuleDef {

// Designate Set[SetElem] as the garbage collection root,
// everything that Set[SetElem] does not strongly depend on will be garbage collected
// and will not be constructed. 
val roots = Seq(DIKey.get[Set[SetElem]])

// Enable GC
val gcModule = new TracingGCModule(roots)
val injector = Injector(gcModule)

val locator = injector.produce(roots)
// Strong constructed!

assert(locator.get[Set[SetElem]].size == 1) 

The Weak class was not required in any dependency of Set[SetElem], so it was pruned. The Strong class remained, because the reference to it was strong, therefore it was counted as a dependency of Set[SetElem]

Had we changed Strong to depend on the Weak, the Weak would be retained:

final class Strong(weak: Weak) {
  println("Strong constructed")

assert(locator.get[Set[SetElem]].size == 2)

Debugging, Introspection, Diagnostics and Hooks

You can print a plan to get detailed info on what will happen during instantiation. The printout includes file:line info so your IDE can show you where the binding was defined!

System.err.println(plan: OrderedPlan)


You can also query a plan to see the dependencies and reverse dependencies of a class and their instantiation:

// Print dependencies
// Print reverse dependencies


The printer highlights circular dependencies.

Distage also uses some macros, macros are currently used to create TagKs and provider bindings. If you think they’ve gone awry, you can turn macro debug output during compilation by setting -Dizumi.distage.debug.macro=true java property:

sbt -Dizumi.distage.debug.macro=true compile

Macros power distage-static module, an alternative backend that does not use JVM runtime reflection to instantiate classes and auto-traits.

Extensions and Plan Rewriting - writing a distage extension

Migrating from Guice

Migrating from MacWire



To import cats integration add distage-cats library:

libraryDependencies += Izumi.R.distage_cats


libraryDependencies += "com.github.pshirshov.izumi.r2" %% "distage-cats" % "0.7.0-SNAPSHOT"

If you’re not using sbt-izumi-deps plugin.


import cats.implicits._
import cats.effect._
import distage._
import distage.interop.cats._
import com.example.{DBConnection, AppEntrypoint}

object Main extends IOApp {
  def run(args: List[String]): IO[Unit] = {
    val myModules = module1 |+| module2 // Monoid instance for ModuleDef is available now
    for {
      plan <- myModules.resolveImportsF[IO] { // resolveImportsF is now available
        case i if i.target == DIKey.get[DBConnection] =>
      classes <- Injector().produceIO[IO](plan) // produceIO is now available
      _ <- classes.get[AppEntrypoint].run
    } yield ()






See PPER Overview