Key Features

  • Provides Docker containers as resources
  • Reasonable defaults with flexible configuration
  • Excellent for providing Docker implementations of services for integration tests


Add the distage-framework-docker library:

libraryDependencies += "io.7mind.izumi" %% "distage-framework-docker" % "0.11.0-SNAPSHOT"


Usage of distage-framework-docker generally follows these steps:

  1. Create ContainerDefs for the containers the application requires
  2. Create a module that declares the container component
  3. Include the DockerSupportModule in the application’s modules


Required imports:

import izumi.distage.docker.ContainerDef
import izumi.distage.docker.Docker
import izumi.distage.model.definition.ModuleDef
import izumi.reflect.TagK

1. Create a ContainerDef

The ContainerDef is a trait used to define a Docker container. Extend this trait and provide an implementation of the config method.

The required parameters for Config are:

  • image - the docker image to use
  • ports - ports to map on the docker container

See Docker.ContainerConfig[Tag] for additional parameters.

Example postgres container definition:

object PostgresDocker extends ContainerDef {
  val primaryPort: Docker.DockerPort = Docker.DockerPort.TCP(5432)

  override def config: Config = {
      image = "library/postgres:12.2",
      ports = Seq(primaryPort),
      env = Map("POSTGRES_PASSWORD" -> "postgres"),

2. Declare Container Components

To use this container, a module that declares this component is required:

Use make for binding in a ModuleDef:

class PostgresDockerModule[F[_]: TagK] extends ModuleDef {
  make[PostgresDocker.Container].fromResource {
object PostgresDockerModule {
  def apply[F[_]: TagK] = new PostgresDockerModule[F]

3. Include the DockerSupportModule

Include the izumi.distage.docker.modules.DockerSupportModule module in the application modules. This module contains required component declarations and initializes the Docker.ClientConfig.

import cats.effect.IO
import com.typesafe.config.ConfigFactory
import distage.Injector
import izumi.distage.config.AppConfigModule
import izumi.distage.docker.modules.DockerSupportModule
import izumi.distage.effect.modules.CatsDIEffectModule
import izumi.logstage.api.routing.StaticLogRouter
import izumi.logstage.distage.LogIOModule

val distageFrameworkModules = new ModuleDef {
  // required for docker

  // standard distage framework modules
  include(new LogIOModule[IO](StaticLogRouter.instance, false))

The required framework modules plus PostgresDockerModule is sufficient to depend on Docker containers:

def minimalExample = {
  val applicationModules = new ModuleDef {

  Injector().produceGetF[IO, PostgresDocker.Container](applicationModules).use { container =>
    val port = container.availablePorts.first(PostgresDocker.primaryPort)
    IO(println(s"postgres is available on port ${port}"))

// postgres is available on port AvailablePort(,5432)

If the DockerSupportModule is not included in an application then a get of a Docker container dependent resource will fail with a izumi.distage.model.exceptions.ProvisioningException.

Config API

The DockerProviderExtensions provides additional APIs for modiying the container definition.


Use modifyConfig to modify the configuration of a container. The modifier is instantiated to a Functoid, which will summon any additional dependencies.

For example, to change the user of the PostgreSQL container:

class PostgresRunAsAdminModule[F[_]: TagK] extends ModuleDef {
  make[PostgresDocker.Container].fromResource {
    PostgresDocker.make[F].modifyConfig { () => (old: PostgresDocker.Config) =>
      old.copy(user = Some("admin"))

Suppose HostPostgresData is a component provided by the application modules. This path can be added to the PostgreSQL container’s mounts by adding to the additional dependencies of the provider magnet:

case class HostPostgresData(path: String)

class PostgresWithMountsDockerModule[F[_]: TagK] extends ModuleDef {
  make[PostgresDocker.Container].fromResource {
    PostgresDocker.make[F].modifyConfig {
      (hostPostgresData: HostPostgresData) =>
        (old: PostgresDocker.Config) =>
          val dataMount = Docker.Mount(hostPostgresData.path, "/var/lib/postgresql/data")
          old.copy(mounts = old.mounts :+ dataMount)


dependOnDocker adds a dependency on a given Docker container. distage ensures the requested container is available before the dependent is provided.

For example, suppose a system under test requires both PostgreSQL and Elasticsearch. One option is to use dependOnDocker to declare the Elasticsearch container depends on the PostgreSQL container:

object ElasticSearchDocker extends ContainerDef { val ports = Seq(9200, 9300) override def config: Config = { Config( image = "docker.elastic.co/elasticsearch/elasticsearch:7.7.0", ports = ports.map(Docker.DockerPort.TCP(_)), env = Map("discovery.type" -> "single-node") ) } } class ElasticSearchPlusPostgresModule[F[_]: TagK] extends ModuleDef { make[PostgresDocker.Container].fromResource { PostgresDocker.make[F] } make[ElasticSearchDocker.Container].fromResource { ElasticSearchDocker.make[F].dependOnDocker(PostgresDocker) } }

Another example of dependencies between containers is in the “Docker Container Networks” section later in this document.

Availability and Health Checks

The healthCheck properties of Docker.ContainerConfig configure the health checks. A container resource will not be provided if the health checks did not succeed at acquire time. These are used to determine if an existing container can be used and if starting a fresh container succeeded.

By default, the healthCheck is a port check of the ports from the container config. There are several standard checks provided in ContainerHealthCheck that can be combined to cover many common cases.

The availablePorts property of the container resource are the mapped ports that passed the health check. This is a map from a Docker.DockerPort provided in the config to a host and port. For example:

val port = container.availablePorts.first(PostgresDocker.primaryPort)

would be a host and port mapped to the Postgres container’s primary port that have passed the health check.

Usage in Integration Tests

A common use case is using Docker containers to provide service implementations for integration test, such as using a PostgreSQL container for verifying an application that uses a PostgreSQL database. distage container resources are easy to integrate as providers.

Consider the example application below. This application is written to depend on a doobie Transactor, which is constructed from a PostgresServerConfig.

import doobie.Transactor
import doobie.syntax.connectionio._
import doobie.syntax.string._

class PostgresExampleApp(xa: Transactor[IO]) {
  def plusOne(a: Int): IO[Int] = {
    sql"select ${a} + 1".query[Int].unique.transact(xa)

  val run: IO[Unit] = {
    for {
      v <- plusOne(1)
      _ <- IO(println(s"1 + 1 = ${v}."))
    } yield ()

// the postgres configuration used to construct the Transactor
case class PostgresServerConfig(
  host: String,
  port: Int,
  database: String,
  username: String,
  password: String,

class TransactorFromConfigModule extends ModuleDef {
  make[Transactor[IO]].from { config: PostgresServerConfig =>
    import scala.concurrent.ExecutionContext.global

    implicit val contextShift = IO.contextShift(global)
    implicit val timer = IO.timer(global)


Note that the above code is agnostic of environment. Provided a PostgresServerConfig, the Transactor needed by PostgresExampleApp can be constructed.

An integration test would use a module that provides the PostgresServerConfig from a PostgresDocker.Container:

class IntegUsingDockerModule extends ModuleDef { make[PostgresServerConfig].from { container: PostgresDocker.Container => { val knownAddress = container.availablePorts.first(PostgresDocker.primaryPort) PostgresServerConfig( host = knownAddress.hostV4, port = knownAddress.port, database = "postgres", username = "postgres", password = "postgres", ) } } make[PostgresDocker.Container].fromResource { PostgresDocker.make[IO] } }

Using distage-testkit the test would be written like this:

import izumi.distage.testkit.scalatest.{AssertCIO, DistageSpecScalatest}
import distage.DIKey

class PostgresExampleAppIntegTest extends DistageSpecScalatest[IO] with AssertCIO {
  override def config = super.config.copy(
    moduleOverrides = new ModuleDef {
      include(new TransactorFromConfigModule)
      include(new IntegUsingDockerModule)
    memoizationRoots = Set(

  "distage docker" should {
    "support integration tests using containers" in {
      app: PostgresExampleApp =>
        for {
          v <- app.plusOne(1)
          _ <- assertIO(v == 2)
        } yield ()

Typically, this would be run by the test runner. For completeness, the example can be run directly using:

def postgresDockerIntegrationExample = {
  val applicationModules = new ModuleDef {
    include(new TransactorFromConfigModule)
    include(new IntegUsingDockerModule)

    .produceGetF[IO, PostgresExampleApp](applicationModules)
    .use(app => app.run)

// 1 + 1 = 2.

Docker Container Environment

The container config (Docker.ContainerConfig) defines the container environment. Of note are the environment variables, command of entrypoint, and working directory properties:

  • env: Map[String, String] - environment variables to setup in container
  • cmd: Seq[String] - command of entrypoint
  • cwd: Option[String] - working directory in container

Once defined in a ContainerDef the config may be modified by distage modules. See modifyConfig above for one mechanism.

The container ports will also add to the configured environment variables:

  • DISTAGE_PORT_<protocol>_<originalPort> are the host ports allocated for the container

Docker Metadata

The host ports allocated for the container are also added to the container metadata as labels. These labels follow the pattern distage.port.<protocol>.<originalPort>. The value is the integer port number.

Docker Container Networks

distage-framework-docker can automatically manage Docker networks.

To connect containers to the same Docker network, use a ContainerNetworkDef:

  1. Create a ContainerNetworkDef.
  2. Add the network to each container’s config.

This will ensure the containers are all connected to the network. Assuming no reuse, distage will create the required network and add each container to that network.

1. Create a ContainerNetworkDef

A minimal ContainerNetworkDef uses the default configuration.

object TestClusterNetwork extends ContainerNetworkDef {
  override def config: Config = Config()

By default this object identifies the network. The associated tag type uniquely identifies this network within the application. In addition, any created network will have a label with this name in Docker.

2. Add to Container Config

A container will be connected to all networks in the networks of the config. The method connectToNetwork adds a dependency on a network defined by a ContainerNetworkDef, as in this example:

class TestClusterNetworkModule[F[_]: TagK] extends ModuleDef {
  make[TestClusterNetwork.Network].fromResource {
  make[PostgresDocker.Container].fromResource {
  make[ElasticSearchDocker.Container].fromResource {

The use of connectToNetwork automatically adds a dependency on TestClusterNetwork.Network to each container.

Container Network Reuse

Container networks, like containers, are reused by default. If there is an existing network that matches a definition then that network will be used. This can be disabled by setting the reuse configuration to DockerReusePolicy.KillOnExitNoReuse:

object AlwaysFreshNetwork extends ContainerNetworkDef {
  override def config: Config = Config(reuse = Docker.DockerReusePolicy.KillOnExitNoReuse)

For an existing network to be reused, the config and object name at time of creation must be the match the current configuration value and object.

Docker Client Configuration

The Docker.ClientConfig is the configuration of the Docker client used. Including the module DockerSupportModule will provide a Docker.ClientConfig.

There are two primary mechanisms to change the Docker.ClientConfig provided by DockerSupportModule:

  1. Provide a docker configuration in the application.conf:
# include the default configuration
include "docker-reference.conf"

# override docker object fields
docker {
  readTimeoutMs = 60000
  globalReuse = "always-kill"
  1. Override the DockerSupportModule using overridenBy:
import izumi.distage.docker.Docker
import izumi.distage.docker.Docker.DockerReusePolicy

class CustomDockerConfigExampleModule[F[_]: TagK] extends ModuleDef {
  include(DockerSupportModule[F] overridenBy new ModuleDef {
    make[Docker.ClientConfig].from {
        readTimeoutMs    = 10000,
        connectTimeoutMs = 10000,
        globalReuse      = DockerReusePolicy.ReuseEnabled,
        useRemote        = true,
        useRegistry      = true,
        remote           = Some(
            host      = "tcp://localhost:2376",
            tlsVerify = true,
            certPath  = "/home/user/.docker/certs",
            config    = "/home/user/.docker",
        registry = Some(
            url      = "https://index.docker.io/v1/",
            username = "dockeruser",
            password = "ilovedocker",
            email    = "dockeruser@github.com",

Container Reuse

By default acquiring a container resource does not always start a fresh container. Likewise on releasing the resource the container will not be destroyed. When a container resource is acquired, the Docker system is inspected to determine if a matching container is already executing. If a matching container is found this container is referenced by the ContainerResource. Otherwise a fresh container is started. In both cases the acquired ContainerResource will have passed configured health checks.

Matching Containers for Reuse

For an existing container to be reused, all the following must be true:

  • The current client config has globalReuse == DockerReusePolicy.ReuseEnabled
  • The container config has reuse == DockerReusePolicy.ReuseEnabled
  • The running container was created for reuse.
  • The running container uses the same image as the container config.
  • All ports requested in the container config must be mapped for the running container.

Configuring Reuse

DockerReusePolicy has 2 possible values:

  • ReuseEnabled: the resource (container or network) will be always freed after use and existing matching containers will not be reused
  • ReuseDisabled: the resource will be always be freed after use but existing matching containers will be reused

The ContainerDef.Config.reuse should be DockerReusePolicy.ReuseDisabled to disable reuse for a specific container. While Docker.ClientConfig.globalReuse should be DockerReusePolicy.ReuseDisabled to disable reuse throughout the application.

Improving Reuse Performance

When utilizing reuse, the performance cost of inspecting the Docker system can be avoided using memoization roots. For example, in this integration test the container resource is not reconstructed for each test. Because the resource is not reconstructed there is no repeated inspection of the Docker system.

class NoReuseByMemoizationExampleTest extends DistageSpecScalatest[IO] {
  override def config = super.config.copy(
    moduleOverrides = new ModuleDef {
    memoizationRoots = Set(

  "distage docker" should {
    "provide a fresh container resource" in { c: PostgresDocker.Container =>
      val port = c.availablePorts.first(PostgresDocker.primaryPort)
      IO(println(s"port ${port}"))

    "provide the same resource" in { c: PostgresDocker.Container =>
      val port = c.availablePorts.first(PostgresDocker.primaryPort)
      IO(println(s"port ${port}"))


The distage-example project uses distage-framework-docker to provide a PostgresDockerModule.

The distage-framework-docker project contains example ContainerDefs and modules for various services under izumi.distage.docker.examples namespace.


To kill all containers spawned by distage, use the following command:

docker rm -f $(docker ps -q -a -f 'label=distage.type')


// izumi.distage.model.exceptions.ProvisioningException: Provisioner stopped after 1 instances, 2/14 operations failed:
//  - {type.izumi.distage.docker.DockerClientWrapper[=λ %0 → IO[+0]]} (distage-framework-docker.md:40), MissingInstanceException: Instance is not available in the object graph: {type.izumi.distage.docker.DockerClientWrapper[=λ %0 → IO[+0]]}.

The DockerSupportModule was not included in the application modules. The component DockerClientWrapper is provided by izumi.distage.docker.modules.DockerSupportModule.